Students” 2009 by Albaroni *
once belonged to the sultanate of
Butung. The sultanate included Butung, Muna, Kabaena, and other
small islands. The Sultan of Butung ruled the Muna through a
hierarchy of advisors and officials. Local chiefs, who were
selected from the families of their predecessors, lived in the
capital. In 1910, the Muna came under Dutch rule. Since that
time, the peoples of this region have experienced many cultural
changes due to Buginese domination and exploitation by the
Muna society is divided
into various classes: the Kaoem (upper class nobility), the Wakale (lower class nobility), and the Mardeka (commoners), followed by a class of
slaves and their descendants. Each class is entitled to certain
privileges, ornaments, clothing, and songs.
The Muna make their living as farmers,
with their primary crops being cashews, corn, rice and seaweed.
Other crops include sweet potatoes, sugar cane and various kinds
of spices. They also
market products of
the jungle such as teak wood and rattan.
The island of Muna is divided into
village territories. The right to cultivate land is administered
by the village council, since the council retains ultimate
ownership of all the land. Houses are scattered among the fields
and are usually built on piles. They are constructed of plaited
grasses and have very high roofs.
When a young Muna couple
becomes engaged, the groom's family makes payments to the girl's
family. Additional payments are also made at the wedding
ceremony. The bride-price depends on the social rank of the
groom. Prior to marriage, the young man is also required to work
for a certain period of time for his prospective in-laws. These
customs have given rise to a high rate of elopement.
They live in the province of Southeast Sulawesi on the
larger islands of Muna and the west coast of Buton and the
smaller islands of Kadatua, Siompu, Bangkomalape, Tiworo and
1.5 % adherent and 0.06 evangelical
The New Testament has been translated, but the Jesus
film is not available yet.
Initial church planting has started.
Pray that more church planters will go
to the Muna and that an indigenous church will be planted.
Pray that the Lord will prepare the
hearts of the Muna to receive him as Savior and Lord.
Pray that the Lord will reveal himself
to the Muna.
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